FOUR (OR MORE)

Today we will look at another four-part icon.  Such multiple icons enabled the purchaser to have four or five different icon images on a single panel — the equivalent of that many separate icons.  You will also find them referred to as “four-field” icons and “quadripartite” icons.  I like the term “multiple” icon, which covers anything from two to three to four to five or more individual icon images painted on a single panel.

This is a Vetka / Ветка icon, as are certain others in the Maryhill Museum collection.  By that I mean it is in the manner typical of the Old Believer settlements in the region of the towns of Vetka (now in Belarus) and Starodub (now in nearby Briansk Oblast, Russia).  This area has changed hands often over the centuries, but it is where today the borders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine come together.

(Courtesy of Maryhill Museum)

We will begin with the first image at upper left:

I hope you all easily recognize it as an example of the “Joy to All Who Suffer” type, which I discussed in previous postings.  You have probably noticed that there are always variations as to which saints are included, as well as whether the “suffering” are picture too, or — as here — omitted.

Let’s look at the title inscription anyway:

It reads:

ПРЕСВЯРЫЯ БОГОРОДИЦЫ ВСЕМЪ СКОРБЯЩИМЪ РАДОСТЬ
PRESVYATUIYA BOGORODITSUI VSEM” SKROBYASHCHIM” RADOST’
MOST-HOLY GOD-BIRTHGIVER TO-ALL SUFFERING    JOY

In normal English,
“The Most Holy Mother of God ‘Joy to All Who Suffer.'”

Oh, you are going to be so tired by the time we get through all this.

We see:

Left bottom with scroll.  Apostle Peter:

«Велико имя Святыя Троицы! Пресвятая Богородице, помогай нам!
“Great is the name of the Holy Trinity! Holy Mother of God, help us! “

Right bottom with scroll.  Prophet Iob/Job: from Job 2:10:

Аще благая прияхом от руки Господни, з[лых ли не стерпим]?
“Shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?

Then we have two angels with scrolls bearing fragmentary inscriptions.

Angel at left with scroll:

Сице глголетъ господь боля
“Thus says the Lord: Suffering/Pain …”

Angel at right with scroll:

Радуитеся и веселитеся яко …
“Rejoice and be glad, for …”

Scroll above left angel begins:

Всем скорбящимъ и обедимымъ …
“To all who suffer and are offended …”

Scroll above right angel begins:

Всемъ вамъ скрбящим радость
“To all you who suffer, joy …”

The saints at left are, from top left:

Holy Martyr Vnifantiy/Boniface
Holy Priest-martyr Kharlampiy/Kharalampos
Holy Nikolae/Nicholas Wonderworker
Holy Apostle Pavel/Paul

The saints at right are, from top left:

Venerable Pelagia
Venerable Paisiy/Paisius
Righteous Aleksiy/Alexei, Man of God
Holy Prophet Iov/Job
Venerable Iosif/Joseph

The second image is at upper right, with its title inscription:

It reads:

СТРАДАНИЯ СВЯТЫХЪ МУЧЕНИКОВ КИРИКА И ОУЛИТЫ
STRADANIYA SVYATUIX” MUCHENIKOV KIRIKA I OULITUI
“THE PASSION OF HOLY MARTYRS KIRIK/CYRICUS AND OULITA/JULITTA”
Stradaniya  — meaning “suffering” or “passion” is a term often used in icons for the suffering during martyrdom of various saints.

Here is the icon:

Kirik and Oulita were supposedly a mother-son pair of martyrs under Emperor Diocletian.  Their hagiography says they were arrested at Tarsus in Cilicia.  The ruler there attempted to ingratiate himself with the boy, but  three-year-old Kirik was having none of it, and the tale says that he called on the name of Christ, and kicked the ruler in the stomach.  At this offense, the ruler threw Kirik down the steps with such force that his head was crushed. His mother Oulita was tortured, then beheaded in the year 296 c.e.

The sequence of scenes in the icon begins at lower left with the “Birth of Holy Martyr Kirik”:

It continues at lower right, with Kirik and Oulita brought before the ruler:

Then the scene moves to upper left:

The inscription tells us that the hegemon/ruler had Oulita beaten, and Kirk cried out “I am a Christian,” and pulled the beard of the ruler, who then killed him.

At upper left, the inscription tells us, we see Oulita praying at the time of her martyrdom, then after her prayer she was beheaded:

The third icon type of the four-part icon is at lower left.  It is identified by its title inscription:

ВЗЫСКАНИЕ ПОГИБШИХЪ ДУШАХЪ
VSUISKANIE POGIBSHIKH” DUSHAKH”
“RECOVERY OF LOST SOULS.”

This icon type — which was quite popular in the 19th century — is more commonly known in English by the more loosely translated title “Seeker of the Lost.”

Here is the image:

The fourth icon is at lower right.  It is a gathering of saints, and the saints included would usually depend on the choice of the purchaser of the icon.

They are, from top left:

Holy Martyr Tatiana
Holy Martyr Oul’yaniya/Ioulyaniya/Juliania
Venerable Marfa/Martha
Holy Apostle and Evangelist Matfey/Matthew
Holy Prophet Isaiya/Isaiah
Holy Speridoniy/Spyridon, Bishop
Holy Priest-martyr Antipiy/Antipas

Well, given that it is a four-part icon, we should be done with it, right?  Wrong.  Four-part icons often have a central image, which — as here — is frequently the Crucifixion:

It has some of the usual inscriptions, which I have discussed in previous postings.  “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews” is abbreviated on the top crosspiece.  On the larger crossbeam is “King of Glory” and “Son of God.”  There is an additional four-letter abbreviation that appears to be a miswriting of НИКА –NIKA — the standard Greek inscription meaning “He Conquers.”  We see also the abbreviations for “spear” and “sponge” above the implements of the passion.

On the lower slanting crosspiece we see “The Place of Judgment Has Become Paradise,” and the two-letter abbreviation for “Hill of Golgotha.”  And we see the blood of Jesus dripping down onto the “Skull/Head of Adam.”

Now there are all kinds of variations as to which icon types are included in four-part icons.  That again depended on the choice of the person ordering the icon.

Oh yes  — and before we finish with this icon, we must also note the presence of “Lord Sabaoth” — God the Father — in the clouds at top center of the four-part icon.  And in the circle just below him is the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove.

 

 

AN OLD BELIEVER “JOY TO ALL WHO SUFFER”

Today we will take a thorough (so get your tea and biscuits/cookies) look at an icon type discussed in a previous posting:

https://russianicons.wordpress.com/2015/11/11/a-very-popular-marian-image-the-joy-of-all-who-suffer/

Today’s example is very useful in learning to read inscriptions, so I will dwell on those in some detail, in order to help those of you who are just beginning to learn to translate Church Slavic inscriptions.

First we should look at the title inscription at the top:  It begins at left, and continues at right:


ѠБРАЗ ВСЕМ СКОРБЯЩИМЪ
OBRAZ VSEM SKORBYASHCHIM”
IMAGE [of] TO-ALL SUFFERING

РАДОСТЬ ПРЕСВЯТЫЯ БОГОРОДИЦЫ
RADOST’ PRESVYATUIYA BOGORODITSUI
JOY           MOST-HOLY       GOD-BIRTHGIVER

If we put it all together we get:

ѠБРАЗ ВСЕМ СКОРБЯЩИМЪ РАДОСТЬ ПРЕСВЯТЫЯ БОГОРОДИЦЫ
OBRAZ VSEM SKORBYASHCHIM” RADOST’ PRESVYATUIYA BOGORODITSUI
“IMAGE OF THE JOY TO ALL WHO SUFFER MOST HOLY MOTHER OF GOD”

Now as you can see, the final translation has been put into normal English.  This type is also often called in English the “Joy of All Who Suffer” Mother of God.

Here is the icon:

(Courtesy of the Maryhill Museum of Art)

At top center we see ГОСПОДЬ САВАѠФЪ/GOSPOD’ SAVAOF” — “LORD SABAOTH” — God the Father.  He blesses with his right hand and holds a cross-topped orb — the symbol of universal rule and authority — in has left:

Now the position of the fingers in his blessing hand tells us that this is an Old Believer icon, which is not surprising, given its stylized form.

Below and to the left of Lord Sabaoth, we see this:

It is of course the sun, and we see the Church Slavic word СОЛНЦЕ/SOLNTSE — “SUN” just above it.

On the right of the icon is the moon — ЛУНА/LUNA — among the stars.

It is common in Russian iconography for the sun and moon to be given faces — anthropomorphized.  You may recall that the other icon type in which the sun and moon are commonly found is the Crucifixion, but in that type the sun is darkened and the moon is blood red, in contrast to this type, in which the sun and moon are represented normally.

If you are a long-time reader here, you will recognize the central image of Mary and the child Jesus as a version of what is called in German the Strahlende Madonna — the “Radiant Madonna.”  And you may recall that in some versions of this icon type, Mary is shown without the child Jesus on her arm:  Here both are crowned, and Mary has a string of painted jewels in her halo:

The abbreviation above her is the standard Greek ΜΡ ΘΥ, identifying her as Μήτηρ Θεού / Meter Theou — “Mother of God.”  While all other inscriptions on Russian icons are generally in Church Slavic,  Russian iconography nonetheless kept this abbreviation as the identifying mark of Mary.  And as you can see, it also kept the standard Greek abbreviation used to identify Jesus in Russian icons:  IC  XC for Ιησούς Χριστός / Iesous Khristos — “Jesus Christ.”  Each abbreviation has the curved horizontal line indicating abbreviation above it.

If we look at Jesus in the arms of Mary, we can see that his halo contains the usual inscription used for him in the cross outline visible behind his head.

The Greek form of the halo inscription is Ὁ ѠN — HO ON — meaning “The One Who Is” — a title of God found in Exodus 3:14.  The letters are read top-left-right, as they usually also are in Bulgarian icons.  In Russian icons, however, the left letter is commonly changed from Ѡ to Slavic  Ѿ  — pronounced “ot” — which enables them to read the inscription left-top-right while giving it various fanciful interpretations.  That is what we see here.  Some like the letters to represent the members of the Trinity, interpreting them as abbreviations for the Three-Hypostatic Godhood, represented in the letters as  Ѿ (ot) for Ѿтеческий/Otecheskiy — “Of the Father’s”; О for Оум/Oum — “Mind”; and  Н for Непостижимъ Сыин/Nepostizhim Suin — “Unfathomable Son.”

Still others read it as abbreviating
От небес приидох — Они же Мя не познаша — На кресте распяша
Ot nebes priidokh — Oni zhe mya ne poznasha — Na kreste raspyasha
“From heaven I came — They knew me not — On the cross I was crucified.”

Now for some practice in reading saints’ names.  Let’s begin with those just to left of Mary, beginning at the top:

At the very top, we see this saint wearing a monk’s garments:

ПРД ЗОСИМЪ СОЛ
PRD ZOZIM” SOL
The first and last words are abbreviated.  In full the title is:

ПРЕПОДОБНЫЙ ЗОСИМЪ СОЛОВЕТСКИЙ
PREPODOBNUIY ZOSIM” SOLOVETSKIY
“VENERABLE ZOSIM/ZOSIMA OF SOLOVETSK”

You may recall that he is one of a pair of saints often found in icons:  Zosim and Savvatiy Solovetskiy — the founding fathers of the Solovetskiy/Solovkiy Monastery and the patron saints of beekeeping. Remember that Prepodobnuiy (literally “most-like” — meaning most like Christ, or most like Adam before the Fall) is commonly translated into English as Venerable — and that this is the masculine form, the common title for a monk.

Below him we see at left:

ПРД ФЕОДОСИЯ
ПРЕПОДОБНАЯ ФЕОДОСИЯ
PREPODOBNAYA FEODOSIYA
“VENERABLE FEODOSIYA/THEODOSIA”

Now as you can see, the PRD here abbreviates PREPODOBNAYA — the female form of Prepodobnuiy, and it is the common title for a nun.  And as we see, Feodosiya is wearing a nun’s garments.  Presumably she is Theodosia of Constantinople.

Now oddly enough, the writer has given the saint at right the PRD abbreviation too — which he usually does not have, because he was not a monk.  So we will omit it here.  He is:

ВАСИЛИЙ БЛАЖЕННЫЙ
VASILIY BLAZHENNUIY
“VASILIY THE BLESSED.”

BLAZHENNUIY is a title commonly used for “Holy Fools,” those called “Fools for Christ’s Sake.”  And this Vasiliy/Basil is the same fellow for whom the St. Vasiliy/Basil Cathedral in Red Square in Moscow is named. Vasiliy was prayed to for safety from fire, for the cure of eye problems, and for help when beginning a new task in a workshop.

Next come two very familiar saints:

At left is:
СВЯТЫЙ ПАВЕЛЪ АПОСТОЛ
SVYATUIY PAVEL” APOSTOL
“HOLY PAVEL/PAUL APOSTLE”

So he is the Apostle Paul, from the New Testament.  He is often prayed to for protection of children from death.  And beside him is

СВЯТЫЙ ПЕТРЪ АПОСТОЛ
SVYATUIY PETR” APOSTOL
“HOLY PETR/PETER APOSTLE”

And that is St. Peter from the New Testament.  Notice that he holds the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven in one hand, and also a scroll reading:

ТЫ ЕСИ ПЕТР НА СЕМ КАМЕНИ
TUI ESI PETR NA SEM KAMENI
“YOU ARE PETER: ON THIS ROCK”

The words are taken from Matthew 16:18:
ты еси Петр, и на сем камени созижду Церковь Мою, и врата адова не одолеют ей:
Tui esi Petr, i na sem kameni sozizhdu tserkov’ moiu, i vrata adova ne odoleleiut ey
“You are Peter; on this rock I shall build my church, and the gates of Hades shall not Prevail against it.”

Peter was prayed to for relief from fevers, and Paul — like the Holy Fool Vasiliy — for help when beginning a new work in a workshop.

Then we have two saints robed as bishops, with the bishop’s stole (Slavic omofor/Greek omophorion around their necks and the Gospel book in their hands:

At left is:

СВЯТЫЙ  ХАРЛАМПИЙ СВЯЩЕННОМУЧЕНИК
SVYATUIY KHARLAMPIY SVYASHCHENOMUCHENIK
“HOLY KHARLAMPIY/KHARALAMPOS PRIEST-MARTYR”

Kharlampiy was prayed to for protection from plagues and sudden death

СВЯТЫЙ АНТИПИЙ
SVUYATUIY ANTIPIY
HOLY ANTIPIY/ANTIPAS

Antipiy was prayed for in case of toothache.

On the right side of the icon, we find these saints:

At top, dressed in the garments of a monk, is

ПРЕПОДОБНЫЙ НИКИТО
PREPODOBNUIIY NIKITO
“VENERABLE NIKITO/NIKITA”

“Nikita” is the more common spelling, but in icons it is not unusual to find spelling variations — usually phonetic. We find here the relatively common substitution of “o” for “a.”  It is a spelling change frequent in Russian icons because the unstressed “o” in Russian sounds rather like “a.”

At left below him, dressed in warrior’s garments and holding the cross of martyrdom, is:

СВЯТЫЙ ГЕОРГИЙ ВЕЛИКОМУЧЕНИК
SVYATUIY GEORGIY VELIKOMUCHENIK
“HOLY GEORGE GREAT-MARTYR

He is the famous saint of “St. George and the Dragon” icons.  He was often prayed to for the protection of flocks.

To the right of George is:

СВЯТАЯ АННА ПРАВЕДНАЯ
SVYATAYA ANNA PRAVEDNAYA
“HOLY ANNA RIGHTEOUS”

This is the Anna who in apocryphal sources such as the Protoevangelion of James was the mother of Mary, mother of Jesus.  Her title Pravednaya/Righteous (male form Pravednuiy) is often used for saints considered to be in some way “Old Testament”  — and Anna and her husband Joachim were predecessors of the Gospel.  Notice that Svyataya is the female form of  male Svyatuiy (“Holy”).  Anna was often prayed to for conceiving children.

Next comes a pair of brothers often found together in icons:

At left is:

СВЯТЫЙ КОЗМА БЕЗСРЕБРЕНИК
SVYATUIY KOZMA BEZSREBRENIK
“HOLY  KOSMA/COSMAS UNMERCENARY”

СВЯТЫЙ ДOМЕАНЪ БЕЗСРЕБРЕНИК
SVYATUIY DOMEAN” BEZSREBRENIK 
“HOLY UNMERCENARY DOMEAN/DAMIAN”

The title Bezsrebrenik means literally “without (bez-) silver (-srebre/серебро) guy (-nik).  It is generally used for physicans who treated patients without asking payment.  Note that as we saw in the name “Nikito,” in Russian icons the letters o and a are often interchanged in the spelling of Domean/Damian.  The two were prayed to for educational matters and of course for healing.

The last two saints on the main part of the icon are both dressed as bishops, with omophorion and Gospel book:

At left is one of the most frequently found saints in Russian iconography, after Mary and Jesus.  he is:

СВЯТТВЙ НИКОЛАЕ ЧУДОТВОРЕЦ
SVYATUIY NIКOLAE CHUDOTVORETS
“HOLY NIKOLAE/NICHOLAS WONDERWORKER”

Nicholas the Wonderworker is Nicholas of Myra, who later morphed into the American Santa Claus.  His name is generally found as Nikola or Nikolai — and in regions such as Belarus as Mikola.  He was often prayed to for safety on the water and protection from drowning.

Last, to his right, is:

СВЯТЫЙ ИОАННЪ ЗЛАТОУСТ
SVYATUIY IOANN” ZLATOUST
“HOLY JOHN CHRYSOSTOM”

His name in Slavic means literally “Golden (zlat-) Mouth (-oust).”  He is one of the “Three Hierarchs” often found together in Russian icons.  He was an archbishop of Constantinople and a noted orator, but also, unfortunately, a virulent anti-Semite.  It was thought helpful to pray to John Zlatoust/Chrysostom when in despair.

You perhaps noticed that the titles on this icon are arranged in the halos like this:

SVYATAYA ANNA PRAVEDNAYA
“HOLY ANNA RIGHTEOUS”

Ordinarily, however, they are like this:

SVYATAYA PRAVEDNAYA ANNA
“HOLY RIGHTEOUS ANNA”

Of course the outcome is the same, but the second form is that generally found in icons.

Though we will not look at them individually, in the outer left and right borders of the icon — commonly the location of saints for whom the members of the family were named, we find these:

Left, from top:

Holy Vasiliy/Basil
Venerable Makariy/Makarios
Holy Great Martyr Dimitriy/Demetrios
Venerable Feodor/Theodore

At right, from top:

Holy Great Martyr Artemiy/Artemios
Holy Martyr Anastasia
Venerable Vasiliy/Basil
Venerable Maria/Mary of Egypt

Now the inscription in the rectangle at the base:

On Marian icons, we often find an inscription with lines from a Marian hymn or a prayer to Mary.  In this case it is the former.

At the beginning, we see these words in red:

ТРОПАРЬ ГЛАСЪ Д
TROPAR’ GLAS”   D
TROPARION VOICE 4

Note that the letter Д (D) here is used as a number.

A troparion is a brief hymn found in liturgical texts.  By “voice” is meant “tone” — and by that is meant a musical mode.  There are traditionally eight modes  — categories of melodies — in Eastern Orthodox hymns.

So we know this text is a hymn, and by its context, most likely a Marian hymn.  But which one is it?

Well, here is the text in a modern Russian font (note that the letter ъ is often omitted at the end of some words in modern form):

Тропарь, глас 4.

К Богородице прилежно ныне притецем грешнии, со смирением припадающе и покаянием, вопиюще из глубины душевныя, Владычице помози милосердовавши на ны, и потщися яко изгибаем от множества грехов. Не отврати раб Своих тощ, Тебе бо Едину Помощницу имамы.

“To the Mother of God let us sinners now earnestly run, with humility falling down in repentance, crying from the depths of the soul:  O Lady, mercifully help us, and make haste, for we perish from the multitude of sins. Turn not your servant away empty, for you are our only hope.”

It is from the “Canon to the Most Holy Mother of God.”

Do not expect to always find the same text on icons of the “Joy to All Who Suffer.”  The text used varies from example to example.  And keep in mind that the wording on Old Believer icons often differs somewhat from that used in the “revised” State Orthodox Church liturgical books.

Perhaps you might like to hear a “State Church” setting by A. Arkhangelskiy of this Troparion:

Well, that’s it for today.  Now go for a walk to work off all those cookies you have eaten while reading this.

THAT IMAGE AT THE TOP…

A curious reader in Germany asked about the image in my blog “header” — what icon it is from, who the figures are, and what the inscription on the scroll means.

It is a detail from this icon of the “Joy of All Who Suffer”:

(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)

Here is a wider view of the “header” detail:

The saints depicted in it are from upper left (below the angel):
Prepodobnuiy Maron — Venerable Maron
Svyashchennomuchenik Antipa — Priest-martyr Antipas
Prepodobnuiy Sergiy Radonezhskiy — Venerably Sergiy of Radonezh
Prepodobnuiy Ioann Novgorodskiy — Venerable John of Novgorod
Prepodobnuiy Ioann Damaskin  — Venerable John of Damascus.

The scroll held by John reads:

Твоя по-
бедите-
льная деснице [-а]
Боголеп-
но в к-
репости
просла
[-вися: та бо, Безсмертне, яко всемогущая, противныя сотре, Израильтяном путь глубины новосоделавшая.]

It is the Irmos from the Canon of the Resurrection, Ode 1:

Your victorious right arm  in godly manner has been glorified in strength;
[it continues:  for, Immortal One, as almighty it struck the adversary, for the Israelites making the path of the deep anew.“]

The Canon of the Resurrection was written by John of Damascus.

The scroll just below the angel is the Stikhera, tone 2 from the Moleben to the “Joy of All Who Suffer” icon.

Всемъ скорбящимъ радость
и обидимымъ предстателница  и
алчущимъ питательница страннымъ…

Joy of all who sorrow, and intercessor for the offended, and feeder of the hungry, of travelers…
[it continues “… the consolation, harbor of the storm-tossed, visitation of the sick, protection and intercessor for the infirm staff of old age, you are the Mother of God on high, O Most Pure One”]

So that is the origin and significance of the present “header” image on this blog.

 
[Later Note: The image discussed here is no longer the “header image on this site.]

 

 

 

THE DIFFERENCE A FEW KOPEKS MAKE: THE “JOY OF ALL WHO SUFFER ‘WITH COINS'”

In an earlier posting, I talked about the very popular Marian icon type called in Church Slavic Vsem Skorbyashchim Radost, — the “Joy of All Who Suffer.”  You may also find it titled Всех скорбящих Радость — Vsekh Skorbyashchikh Radost, which is the same name in Russian.  The Skorbyashchim/Skorbyashchikh part means both “those who are afflicted” and “those who sorrow,” which is why some translate the title as “Joy of/to Those Who Sorrow.”

Today we will look at an interesting and common subtype of that icon.  It is called Всех скорбящих Радость (с грошиками) — Vsekh Skorbyashchikh Radost S Groshikami, meaning “The Joy of All Who Suffer ‘With Coins.'”  The example below —  which appears to have been painted in oils — bears the title: ОБРАЗ СКОРБЯЩИЯ ПРЕСВЯТЫЯ БОГОРОДИЦЫ OBRAZ SKORBYASHCHIYA PRESVYATUIYA BOGORODITSUI “[THE] IMAGE OF [THE] ‘OF THE SUFFERING’ MOST HOLY MOTHER OF GOD” Looking at it, we can see why it is commonly called “With Coins”;  it has coins on its surface.  In most icons the coins are painted, but the maker of this example used real copper coins inserted into the panel:

(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)
(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)

Here is a half-kopek coin from 1898: And here is another from 1909.   The С.П.Б. at the bottom indicates the coin is from the Saint Petersburg mint: Icons of this sub-type often have a brief inscription at the base stating the origin, as we see in the following example produced near the end of the Tsarist era — one of the new mass-produced, chromolithographed icons on tin, such as were offered by the firm of Jacquot and Bonacœur (in Russian Жако и Бонакер), which also produced other kinds of tin goods such as colorful boxes.  These “printed tin” icons competed with the business of icon painters and further contributed to their decline:

 The problem with these colorful old icons on metal is that when scratched or exposed to moisture, they tend to rust very easily, though they were quite attractive to the ordinary Russian buyer when new.

Here is its title inscription, in beautiful traditional lettering, but in Russian rather than Church Slavic:

vsekhsklithtitle And here is the “origin” inscription:

It says:

The true likeness of the wonderworking image of the Mother of God “Joy of All Who Suffer”; it turned up after a thunderstorm that broke out the 23 of July in the year  1888 over the chapel located at St. Petersburg, in the area adjacent to the glass factory.

The traditional story relates that there were several icons in the chapel.  It was struck by lightning, and everything inside was charred, with the exception of one icon that was found where it had fallen face down on the floor.  When it was turned over, the dark surface of the image had become fresh and clear, and sticking to the surface were eleven coins from the poor box that had been shattered by the lightning strike. Now, given the religious mind of ordinary Russians at that time, this event that sounds rather ordinary to us today was seen then as remarkably miraculous.  Within a day of the event, crowds of pilgrims gathered at the chapel, and the fame of the image spread far and wide, drawing even greater masses of people.  And then followed the inevitable “miraculous” healings that are associated with such images in Eastern Orthodoxy.

As we have seen, this image is a variation on the popular “Joy of All Who Suffer” type, and it is said that the image that was eventually transformed by lightning into the “With Coins’ variant was originally found floating in the Neva River by a member of the Kurakin family; later a relative, a merchant named Matveev, donated the icon to the chapel in the village of Klochka, not far from the glassworks, by St. Petersburg. You probably noticed the two inscribed banners at Mary’s sides, which are common to this sub-type.  Loosely translated, they are:

NAGIM’ ODYEYANIE  —- “CLOTHER OF THE NAKED”

And: BOL”NUIM’ ISTSYELENIE — “HEALER OF THE ILL”

These inscriptions illustrate what is happening in the icon:  at left an angel holds out clothing to the naked, and at right another angel stands behind the ill who have come to Mary for healing.

It is important to know the date of appearance of the so-called “wonderworking” Marian icons, because we know that an icon cannot be earlier than the time of its appearance.  So if you happen to be offered an icon of the “Joy of All Who Suffer ‘With Coins'” as an 18th-century icon, you will know that dating is impossible, given that the image did not exist prior to 1888.  The same rule of thumb applies to saints, whose icons are not likely to be found before the date of “glorification” (the Russian equivalent of canonization) of the saint depicted. The “With Coins” sub-type of the “Joy of All Who Suffer” is also often referred to as Всех скорбящих Радость близ Стеклянного завода — Vsekh Skorbyashchikh Radost” Bliz Steklyannogo Zavoda —  “The Joy of All Who Suffer ‘Near The Glass Factory.'”

A VERY POPULAR MARIAN IMAGE: THE “JOY OF ALL WHO SUFFER”

In a previous posting, I briefly discussed the Akathist hymn and why its component forms the kontakion and the oikos are part of basic knowledge for the study of icons because one often encounters them as texts in icons. I also mentioned that in addition to the famous “original” Akathist to Mary, there are quite a number of other akathists, not only to Mary as represented in her various icons, but also to various saints, the Guardian Angel, etc.

Today we will look at a very common example utilizing one of these akathists: the icon type known in Church Slavic as Всем скорбящим Радость — Vsem Skorbyashchim Radost — ” The Joy of All Who Suffer,” sometimes given as “The Joy of All Who Sorrow.”  In literature one often sees it in its Russian form, Всех Скорбящих Радость — Vsekh Skorbyashchikh Radost.

(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)

According to tradition, it first became noted as a supposed “miracle-working” icon in 1688.  The story is that Evfimiya, sister of Patriarch Ioachim, suffered from an incurable disease.  One day while praying, she heard a voice telling her, “Evfimiya!  Go to the Church of the Transfiguration of my son; there is the image called “Joy of All Who Suffer.”  The church was in Moscow, Evfimiy’s residence.  She followed the instructions of the voice and, the account says, was cured.

What this means for our purposes is that we should not expect icons of this type to be earlier than the end of the 17th century, when the icon first gained fame.  The “Joy of All Who Suffer” is an extremely common Marian type in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The basic image is easy to recognize.  It does, however, vary a great deal from example to example, both in the number and kind of secondary figures around Mary, and in the accompanying inscriptions and the text often found in a rectangle at the base.  So translating the texts on one example does not meet they will match those on another.

The basic image depicts Mary standing crowned in the center in an ellipse or mandorla of light. Sometimes she is alone.  In other images she may hold the crowned Christ Child on her left arm (the “Moscow” form), or he may be omitted (as in the “With Coins” variant). She often holds a scepter in her right hand, or she may gesture toward the Child.

Here is one example that includes a number of the “suffering” as well as the frequently-found angels, but in addition, four saints, and at the top the New Testament Trinity, and the images of the sun and the moon:

(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)
(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)

As you see, there is lots of writing on banners; these texts are usually taken (with some variation) from the Akathist to the Joy of All Who Suffer, most commonly from Kontakion 2:

Beholding the streams of wonders which pour forth from your holy icon, O most blessed Mother of God, in that you are the good helper of those who pray, the support of the oppressed, the hope of the hopeless, the consolation of those who grieve, the nourisher of the hungry, the clothing of the naked, the chastity of virgins, the guide of strangers, the assistance of those who labor, the restoration of sight to the blind, the clear hearing to the deaf, and the healing of the sick, in you we thankfully sing to God: Alleluia!

Кондак 2
Видяще токи чудес, изливаемыя от святыя Твоея иконы, благая Богородительнице, яко Ты еси молящихся благая помощница, обидимых заступница, ненадеющихся надежда, печальных утешение, алчущих кормительница, нагих одеяние, девственных целомудрие, странных наставница, труждающихся помощь, слепых прозрение, глухих благослышание, больных исцеление, благодарственне вопием о Тебе Богу: Аллилуиа.

Here is a very similar though somewhat later example:

(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)
(Courtesy of Jacksonsauction.com)

The text at the bottom of this example, as in many others, is this:

We have seen it before in the discussion of the icon type called “O All-Hymned Mother.”  It is the 13th Kontakion of the Akathist prayer/hymn to Mary, the most popular Marian prayer in Eastern Orthodoxy:

О всепетая Мати, рождшая всех святых Святейшее Слово, нынешнее приношение приемши, от всяких напасти избави всех, и грядущия изми муки, вопиющия Ти: Аллилуиа

O all-hymned Mother worthy of all praise, who brought forth the Word, holiest of all Saints, as you receive this our offering, rescue us all from every calamity, and deliver from future torment those who cry with one voice, Alleluia.

As already mentioned, expect considerable variation from icon to icon of this type.  Some versions are very simple, showing only Mary, or Mary with the Christ Child; others add varying numbers of the suffering, along with angels, saints of one kind or another, and at times even a depiction of those in danger on a ship at sea.