WEDDING AND TEMPTATION

Today we will look at a fresco painted in 1527 at the Monastery of St. Nicholas Anapausas, at Meteora in Greece.  Here is an image:

We can see its positioning here, on the upper right-hand wall:

Perhaps you recognize some of the other large images.  To the left of the doorway, we see the “second entry” into Paradise, with Peter at the door, and the Repentant Thief inside, and a soul sitting in the “bosom of Abraham” in the Paradise Garden.  Above the doorway and to its right is a large image of the “Terrible Judgment” — the “Last Judgment.”  But we want to consider the smaller image on the upper left side of the right-hand wall.

Perhaps you have already recognized the depiction.  It is identified by the title inscription at the top:

It reads:

ὉΕΝΚΑ
ΝΑΓΑΜΟC

As is common in Greek inscriptions, the words run together.  We can separate them as:

Ὁ ΕΝ ΚΑΝΑ ΓΑΜΟC

Ho en Kana Gamos
“The in Cana Marriage”

In normal English,
“The Wedding at Cana.”

It depicts the incident recorded in the Gospel called “of John,” 2:1-11:

And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:   And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.  And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus says to him, They have no wine.  Jesus says to her, Woman, what have I to do with you? My hour is not yet come.

His mother says to the servants, Whatever he says to you, do it.  And there were set there six water pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.

Jesus says to them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.  And he says to them, Draw out now, and take it to the governor of the feast. And they took it.

When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not from where it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and says to him, Every man at the beginning does set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but you have kept the good wine until now.

This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.

At left we see Jesus and Mary, identified by their usual inscriptions (abbreviated here) — Meter Theou (“Mother of God”) for Mary, and Iesous Khristos for Jesus, who has the cross in his halo.

To their right, we see a servant filling a jug with the water that is to be miraculously made into wine:

So that is the basic image.  But what is going on at the right side?

The painter has blended the edge of one event into another.  The scene at right is actually a part of a larger type depicting the “Temptation of Jesus” in the wilderness, which chronologically happens right after his baptism by John.

The Gospel called “of Mark” (1:12-13) tells us bluntly and briefly:

And immediately the spirit drives him into the wilderness.  And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered to him.

The Greek text says literally,
Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον.
“And immediately the Spirit casts him out (ekballei) into the wilderness.”  Ekballei is the same term used for the casting out of demons.

Luke and Matthew, however, embroider the event considerably, and that is what we see in this depiction.  Here is Matthew’s account covering the portions we see in the fresco (the second we see only in part):

Matthew 4:1-7:

Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil.

2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward hungry.

3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If you are the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.”

That is what we see here:  the Devil is telling Jesus to turn the stones into bread:

4 “But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.

Then the devil takes him up into the holy city, and sets him on a pinnacle of the temple,

And says to him, If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning you: and in their hands they shall bear you up, lest at any time you dash your foot against a stone.

Jesus said uto him, It is written again, You shalt not tempt the Lord your God.”

The portion of the image we can see, however, shows only the Devil pointing to the ground.  Jesus is out of the image and to the right, standing higher up on the Jerusalem temple.

You may recall that according to the biblical story, the Devil also tempted Jesus by taking him to a high mountain and offering to give him all the kingdoms of the world.  We find that in the continued Matthew account:

Again, the devil takes him up into an exceeding high mountain, and shows him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;

And says to him, All these things will I give you, if you will fall down and worship me.

10 Then says Jesus to him, Get you away, Satan: for it is written, You shalt worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.

In this Russian example of the “Temptation,” (a kleimo (“border image”) from an icon of “The Lord Almighty” enthroned, painted in 1682), we see all three of the temptations:

The large image in the foreground shows the Devil (note the tail!) tempting Jesus to make stones into bread.  At upper right, he takes Jesus to a pinnacle of the Temple and tells him to cast himself down so angels may save him.  And at upper left, he takes him to a high mountain, and shows him all the kingdoms of the world.

Take a close look at the name abbreviation by the head of Jesus:

It reads IИС ХС for  IИСУС ХРИСТОС.  That extra И in the name of Jesus — making it Iisus Khristos — tells us that this is a State Church icon painted after the Old Believers split off from the State Church (or we could say the State Church split off from the traditions of the previous old belief because of the changes instituted by Patriarch Nikon in the mid 1600s).  The Old Believers continued to spell the name of Jesus Isus, while the State Church added another letter, making it Iisus.  But this icon is old enough to be still painted in the traditional manner, instead of in the more realistic “Western” manner quickly adopted by the State Church.

THE PERM OLD BELIEVER ICON PAINTING MANUAL

In a previous posting, I shared a link to online access to the Stroganov Icon Painter’s Manual.  Today I would like to share the link to another and quite interesting old podlinnik (painter’s manual) in the Stroganov Museum.

This manual is identified thus:

Лицевой иконописный подлинник 1829 г. из Пермской Успенской старообрядческой церкви
Litsevoy ikonopisnuiy podlinnik 1829 g[oda] iz Permskoy Uspenskoy staroobryadcheskoy tserkvi

Illustrated icon painting manual,  [of the] year 1829, from the Perm Dormition Old  Ritualist Church.

By “Old Ritualist” is of course meant that it is a church of the Old Believers, who continued the traditional stylized manner of painting long after the State Orthodox Church had adopted the more realistic Western European manner.

As I have told you before, it is important in the study of icons to learn the Church Slavic alphabet and to learn the basic Slavic vocabulary common to Russian icons and podlinniki/podlinniks  You can see how helpful that is in reading this rather fascinating Perm icon painter’s manual.

Here is the image for September 1, the beginning of the old Church year.  This image is not included in the earlier Stroganov manual, through it is described verbally:

As you see, it represents the “Indiction” type, which indicates the beginning of the Church Year through an image of Jesus beginning his ministry by reading from the Book of Isaiah in the synagogue at Nazareth (see the earlier posting on this type at: https://russianicons.wordpress.com/2011/08/31/the-indiction-which-is-the-new-year/)

The writing on the page reads:

МЕСАЦЪ СЕНТЯБРЬ
Mesats  Sentyabr
MONTH [of ] SEPTEMBER

НАЧАЛО ИНДИКТОУ ЕЖЕ ЕСТЬ
Nachalo Indiktou ezhe est
BEGINNING [of the] INDICTION, WHICH IS

НОВОМОУ ЛЕТУ
Novomou Letou
[the] NEW YEAR

ИМАТ ДНIИ Л
Imat dni 30
Has    Days   30

In normal English,

“The Month of September:
The Beginning of the Indiction, which is the New Year.
[September] has 30 days.”

Here is the link to the main page for the Perm manual:

http://stroganovmuseum.ru/vokrug-stroganovykh/izdaniya/item/81-litsevoj-ikonopisnyj-podlinnik-1829-g

On it you will see two entries (you can click on these links here, if you wish):

Часть 1 (с. 1-104)

Часть 2 (c. 105-216)

Часть (Chast)  means “part,” so the first link is to Part 1, pages 1-104,  and the second link to Part 2, pages 105-216.  Most of the Part 2 illustrations are lightly drawn, but were never fully inked in.

You will also find an alternate entry point with a different format on this link:

https://eikon.piwigo.com/index?/category/548-1829_%D0%B3

At the beginning of the podlinnik is an incomplete alphabetical list giving a saint’s name and where he or she is to be found in the book, which is arranged by month and day of commemoration.  The word числа (chisla) at upper right means “number” (date).

To see how it works, we can look at the second entry on the first index page:

Avvakoum Prorok, Deka[br] B

Meaning,
Avvakoum [Habakkuk], Prophet, December 2

If we look at December 2nd, we find this (the page is for December 1 and 2):

It gives us first the saint for the first (A) day of December:
“Of the Holy Prophet Nahum”

Then come those for the Second (B) day:
“Of the Holy Martyr Ananias of Persia”
“Of the Holy Prophet Avvakum”
“Of Holy Philaret the Merciful”

Notice that the female saint second from right has her name entered last, in smaller letters:
“Of the Holy Martyr Myropia.”

If we look in the halos, there are notations helpful to the painter.  In the halo of the Prophet Nahum, we see the word седъ — syed — meaning “grey.”  So we know he is an older man with grey hair.  By contrast, in the halos of the Martyr Ananias and the Prophet Avvakum, we find the word млад — mlad — meaning “young/youth.”

On another page we find Ису́с Нави́н — Isus Navvin — Joshua, son of Nun — and in his halo and in that of the saint beside him — Feodor Yaroslav Vsevolodovich — we find the word русъ — rus –“Russian” — which means the hair of these saints is to be painted in that light brown to dark blond color common to many Russians.  But in this manual, the colors of the garments are not indicated as they are in the Stroganov podlinnik.

By the way, you may notice that Joshua in Slavic has the same name as Jesus — Isus, as is also the case in the Greek Bible.  The Old Testament Jesus — that is, Joshua — is distinguished by the addition of “Navvin” in Slavic and του Ναυή — tou Naui — “of Nun” in Greek.

Here is the page for December 3-4:

On it we see the Prophet Sophoniya (Zephaniah), “our Venerable Father Sabba Storozhevsky Zvenigorodskiy,” “Holy Martyr Theodora,” “Holy Great Martyr Barbara,” “our Venerable Father John of Damascus,” and so on.  But what I really want you to notice is the entry in red at the bottom of the page:

Д ТРОРУЧИЦЫ ПРЕСВЯТЫЯ БОГОРОДИЦЫ
4  [OF THE ] TROERUCHITSUI PRESVYATUIYA BOGORODITSUI
“4  THREE-HANDED MOST HOLY MOTHER OF GOD”

That notation means that December 4th is the day of Commemoration of the icon of Mary called the “Three-handed Most Holy Mother of God.”  In the standard Church calendar, its days are June 28th and July 12th, but here it is placed on the day of John of Damascus, who was associated traditionally with its origin “miracle.” This manual indicates the commemoration of days of supposed “miracle-working” Marian icons with these red entries, but it does not depict these Marian images.  For those the painter had to turn to other patterns outside this book.

I will end this little introduction to the Perm Old Believer podlinnik with this page from November 8, the Sobor Svyatago Arkhistratiga Mikhaila in Prochikh Bezplotnuikh Sil — “The Assembly of the Chief-commander Michael and the Other Bodiless Powers.”

If you are interested in old patterns, you may also wish to look at Nikodim Kondakov’s published collection of icon patterns (volume I is primarily “Jesus” patterns), which you can do at this site:

http://dlib.rsl.ru/viewer/01000869530#?page=1

On that site, click on the thumbnail pages at left to get the enlarged image on the main screen.  Be sure to look at the patterns from page 156 on.

Enjoy!

WHAT SHALL WE BRING YOU

In previous postings we have encountered the Slavic word sobor, which means “assembly,” but can also mean “council” or even “cathedral.”

There are several icon types having titles beginning with Sobor.  Commonly these are icons depicting a gathering or assembly of persons relating in some way to the main Eastern Orthodox church festival celebrated on the previous day.  The “church jargon” term generally used for such a secondary festival in English is synaxis, which is just the Greek word that Church Slavic translates as sobor.

We have seen in a previous posting, for example, the icon of the Sobor of John the Forerunner — the “Assembly of John the Forerunner” — which is the secondary festival following the major festival of the Bogoyavlenie — The Theophany — which is the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan by John.

Today we will look at another such icon.  This one is of the sobor celebrated on the day following the Feast of the Nativity — the birth of Jesus.  And this secondary festival celebrates the sobor of Mary, the Собор Пресвятыя БогородицыSobor Presvyatuiya Bogoroditsui — the “Assembly of the Most Holy Mother of God.”  The earliest-known example of this type dates to the 13th century, and appears to have developed in Serbia.

In the posting immediately preceding this one, we looked at the Marian icon “In You Rejoices,” based on a hymn to Mary.  Similarly, the iconography of today’s image is based on the fourth stikheron (a kind of hymn) of the Great Vespers of the Feast of the Nativity of Jesus:

Что Ти принесем, Христе, яко явился eси на земли яко Человек нас ради? Каяждо бо от Тебе бывших тварей благодарение Тебе приносит: Ангели – пение; небеса – звезду; волсви – дары; пастырие – чудо; земля – вертеп; пустыня – ясли; мы же – Матерь Деву. Иже прежде век, Боже, помилуй нас».

“What shall we bring you, Christ, who have appeared on earth as man for our sake?  For each creature made by you gives you thanks, bringing:  The angels, their song; heaven, the star.  The Wise Men, gifts; the shepherds, the miracle; the earth, the cave; the desert, the manger; and we the virgin mother.  God, who is before all ages, have mercy on us.”

The two Marian icons — “In You Rejoices” and “Assembly of the Mother of God” are often confused, with the former sometimes even given the title of the latter.  But the two types can be distinguished in that “In You Rejoices” has a domed church as its background, whereas the “Assembly of the Mother of God” is set against a background of hills.  Both images include John of Damascus, which perhaps contributes to the problem, as does both hymns being in the same liturgical service.

The “Assembly of the Mother of God” illustrates elements of the stikheron given above.

In the center we see Mary with the child Jesus. Directly above her is a star (“heaven, the star”).  Beside it are angels (“the angels, their song”).  To her left are the three Magi (“the Wise Men, gifts”).  To her right are shepherds (” the shepherds, the miracle”).  Below we see  Kosmas of Maiyum (Cosmas of Maiuma) and John of Damascus with scrolls bearing hymns.  At left is a figure representing the earth holding the manger (“the earth, the manger) and at right another figure representing the desert (“the desert, the cave”)  In the lower center is commonly a group that varies in composition from example to example and may include singers, a king or kings, patriarchs, etc.

In the icon illustrated on this page, the figure with a scroll standing just above and to the left of Mary appears to be the Prophet Isaiah; this figure is not common in the type.

Here is a pattern for the “Assembly of the Most Holy Mother of God” type from the Perm icon painter’s manual:

(Stroganov Museum)

A common name for this icon type is “What Shall We Bring You.”

THE ASSEMBLY OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL

In an earlier posting on the icon type of the “Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Khonae,” I mentioned that there was a tendency in early Christianity to worship angels.  In an attempt to control it, or at least to put it under the authority of the main Church, there was a third-century Council of Laodicea in Phrygia.  It stated in its Canon 35 that Christians were not to avoid the regular church services by going away instead to call upon angels. Though there is some question as to the precise interpretation of this, we can nonetheless see how strong the veneration of angels was at this time by the making of this law (it was also forbidden by this council to join in prayer with “heretics” or “schismatics.”

“Assembly” in Church Slavic is Sobor.  It is applied to liturgical celebrations in honor of a saint or saint involved in an event, often one celebrated on a preceding major feast day.  The Sobor (Greek Synaxis) of the Archangel Michael, in the Orthodoxy Church calendar, took place on November 8th.  Sobor is also the word used for a cathedral and for a Church council.

It was believed that at the end of time — on the day of the “Last Judgment,” there would be a council of all the “heavenly powers” — the angels.  Because this was at the “end of time,” it was seen symbolically as the end of the old creation and the beginning of the Eighth Day — the “day of Eternity.”  That is why in old Church writings the Last Judgment is sometimes referred to as the “Eighth Day.”

It was considered appropriate, then, that the Church festival celebrating the angelic gathering would also be on an “eighth day,” so it was set on the eighth day of the ninth month (November 8th), which at that time would have been measured from the beginning date of March 1.

That leads us to today’s icon.

(Courtesy of Zoetmulder Ikonen: http://www.russianicons.net)

Let’s look at the title inscription:

It is so long that to see it more clearly, it is best to divide it in halves.  Here is the beginning:

It reads:

СОБОРЪ СВЯТАГО АРХИСТРАТИГА МИХАИЛА…
SOBOR” SVYATAGO ARKHISTRATIGA MIKHAILA…
“ASSEMBLY [of the] HOLY CHIEF-COMMANDER MICHAEL…

Here is the ending:

…И ПРОЧИХ НЕБЕСНЫХ СИЛЪ БЕЗПЛОТНЫХЪ
….I PROCHIKH NEBESNUIKH SIL” BEZPLOTNUIKH
…”AND OTHER HEAVENLY POWERS BODILESS”

Putting all that together and in normal English, it is:

“THE ASSEMBLY OF THE HOLY CHIEF-COMMANDER MICHAEL AND THE OTHER BODILESS POWERS”

You will recall that Michael is traditionally considered the commander of the heavenly armies, and “bodiless powers” means the various ranks of angels, which are considered to be without physical bodies — but rather with “spiritual” bodies.  In Greek iconography this type is often called Η Συναξις των Ασωματων — He Synaxis ton Asomaton — “The Assembly of the Bodiless.”

At left we see the Archangel Michael:

At right is the Archangel Gabriel:

The center of the image is balanced by the unidentified (in this example) central angel, who holds two mirrors, that at left with the abbreviation for Jesus (IC) and that at right with the abbreviation for Christ (XC).  He has the typical curly ribbon ends at his ears that signify divine hearing.  It is noteworthy that the arrangement of the angels varies from example to example.  In some, this central angel is identified as Michael, with the two angels in the foreground being Gabriel at left and Raphael at right.  In others, Raphael is the central angel.  In examples with the foremost angels identified, often the names added to these are the archangels Iegudiel, Selaphiel, Uriel, and Barakhiel.

Below him, in a ring of Seraphim (traditionally Seraphim are red, but often artists reversed the colors, making them blue, and Cherubim red) is the image of Christ Immanuel, the Son born eternally of the Father, again with the IC XC abbreviation and the standard HO ON abbreviation in Greek,  signifiying “The One Who Is.”

The red angel at the base of the circle is identified by inscription as:

ХЕРУВИМЪ
KHERUVIM
“CHERUBIM”

It is a peculiarity of Russian iconography that the plural form is used for the singular with both cherubim and seraphim, which accounts for the monks (and nuns) named “Seraphim.”  In many examples, this red lower central angel is identified as СЕРАФИМЪ — Seraphim.

In English, the icon type “Assembly of the Archangel Michael and Other Bodiless Powers” is often called simply the “Synaxis of the Archangel Michael,” the term synaxis being borrowed from the medieval Greek for a “gathering,” often specifically a religious gathering for the celebration of the Eucharist.  This type is also sometimes called simply the “Synaxis of the Archangels.”

Here is another example of the type, which we can tell from its style dates from the late 19th-beginning of the 20th century:

soborarkhmikh

As mentioned earlier, this example has Mikhail (Michael) as the central angel (Archangel); in the left foreground is ГАВРИИЛЪ — Gavriil — Gabriel, and behind him left to right, [И]ЕГУДИИЛЪ — Iegudiil — Iegudiel and  СЕЛАФИИЛЪ — Selafiil — Selaphiel.  At right foreground is РАФИИЛЪ — Rafiil — Raphael, and behind him УРИИЛЪ — Uriil — Uriel and БАРАХИИЛЪ — Barakhiil — Barachiel.  The red central angel at the base is identified as a СЕРАФИМЪ — Serafim — Seraphim, and the title of the blue angels at each side is divided between them: ХЕРУ-ВИМИ — Kheruvimi — Cherubim.  The title, rather squeezed in at the top, is given as  СОБОРБ АРХ[АНГЕЛА] МИХАИЛА —  SOBOR ARKHANGELA MIKHAILA — “The Council of the Archangel Michael.”  So this shows the gathering or council of the Archangels — the АРХАНГЕЛЪСКИЙ СОБОР — Arkhangelskiy Sobor.

THAT MYSTERIOUS ANGEL AGAIN…

Today we will look at another cross, but not the usual kind.  We can tell that right away by the presence of the winged angel on it.  But why is the angel there, and who is he?

(Courtesy of Zoetmulder Ikonen: Russianicons.net)

(Courtesy of Zoetmulder Ikonen: Russianicons.net)

Metal icons often show wear from long use, and the fact that the owners liked to polish them with chalk did not help to preserve surface detail.  That is why we often find fine details on metal icons worn smooth.

The kind of cross shown here had a string or cord through the upper part.  So it is a breast or pectoral cross.

The image at the top is the “Not Made by Hands” type, depicting the face of Jesus on the cloth.  But again, who is the angel?

In spite of wear, one can tell that he carries a long rod (мери́ло — merilo) in one hand, and a mirror (зерцало — zertsalo) in the other.  One might, therefore, expect him to be an Archangel.   But traditionally, this type of cast metal cross of an angel with the crossbar at his head is identified as the Ангел Великого СоветаAngel Velikogo Soveta — the “Angel of Great Counsel.”

We have already seen another “Angel of Great Counsel” type in icons of Jesus as the Blagoe Molchanie — the “Blessed Silence.”  And this metal cross is another form of Jesus as the “Angel of Great Counsel.”  Pectoral crosses of this type are often from the 18th century, though one may find them a little earlier and later as well.

MORE CROSS TALK

A reader in Croatia kindly sent me photos of this cast brass and enamel cross.

If you read my previous posting on cross inscriptions ( https://russianicons.wordpress.com/2011/10/27/the-instant-expert-in-russian-crosses), you will find some of that material repeated here.

First, this is a “Priestless” (Bezpopovtsy) Old Believer cross of the type called an “altar cross” (напрестольный крест — naprestol’nuiy krest).  One can tell it is a “Priestless” cross by looking at the image at the very top.  It is the “Not Made by Hands” image of Jesus on the cloth, the so-called “Abgar” image that resulted from the old story that Jesus once pressed a cloth to his face, which became miraculously imprinted on the cloth, and was thus the first Christian icon.  If this had been a “Priested” (Popovtsy) Old Believer casting, it would instead have a top image of Lord Sabaoth (God the Father) and the Holy Spirit as a dove; and it would also have the I. N. TS. I inscription that abbreviates Pilate’s text “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews” (Исус Назорянин, Царь Иудейский ).

(Courtesy of Nino Rilović)

(Courtesy of Nino Rilović)

Let’s take a closer look at the top of the cross:

We see the “Not Made by Hands” image, with the halo of Jesus having the HO ON inscription, meaning “He Who Is.”  Just below it is a Church Slavic inscription identifying the image:

ꙌБРАЗЪНЕРУКОТ
ВОРЕННЫЙ

OBRAZNERUKOT
VORENNUIY

If we join the two lines as they should be, they read:
Obraz Nerukotvorrenuiy, menaing “[the] IMAGE NOT-HAND-MADE,” or in more normal English, “The Image Not Made by Hands.”

Below that are two flying angels, bowing toward the crucified Jesus, their hands covered with cloths to show reverence.  Their abbreviated inscription reads:

АГГЛИ Г{ОСРО}ДНИ
ANGLI GOSPODNI (remember that a doubled Г Г is pronounced like English “ng”)
“Angels of the Lord”

And just below the two angels is the abbreviated inscription:

Ц[А]РЬ СЛ[А]ВЫ
TSAR SLAVUI
“KING OF GLORY.”

1 Corinthians 2:8 reads:
Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

Now let’s look at the middle portion.  At the top, we see the IC XC abbreviation for “Jesus Christ,”   Remember that while the Old Believers use the , Ісусъ [Isus] spelling, the Russian State Church uses Іисусъ [Iisus]. and “Christ” is Христос — Khristos.

krestmiddle

Below the IC XC are these words:

СЫНЪ БОЖIЙ
SUIN” BOZHIY
“Son of God.”

At left we see the sun, and beneath it is its name:
С[О]ЛНЦЕ
SOLNTSE
“Sun”

At right is the moon, with its name:
ЛУНА
LUNA
“Moon”

Below is a long inscription that runs all the way along the main crossbar.  We will begin with the left side:

It reads:

КРЕСТУ ТВОЕМУ ПОКЛАНАЕМСЯ ВЛАДИКО
KRESTOU TVOEMOU POKLANAEMSYA VLADIKO
Literally,
Cross Of-You We-Bow-Before Master, or in better English,
“We bow before your cross, Master…” (Vladiko means “Ruler,” “Master.”)
It is often translated simply, “We honor/venerate your cross, Lord…”

And it finishes on the right side:

И СВЯАТОЕ ВОСКРЕСЕНИЕ ТВОЕ СЛАВИМЪ
I SVYATOE VOSKRESENIE TVOE SLAVIM”
Literally,
…And your holy resurrection we-praise
More smoothly,
“…And praise your holy resurrection.”

So all together, the inscription reads:
“We bow before your cross, Master, and Praise your holy resurrection.”

It is a common text, found in the Liturgy of John Chrysostom as well as in that of Basil, and repeated in the liturgy of the Third Week in Lent, etc.

In the lower portion of the upright beam, we see at left a spear, and at right a sponge on a reed.  By the spear is the letter K, abbreviating КОПИЕ — KOPIE, meaning “lance,” “spear.”   And by the sponge is the letter T, abbreviating  ТРОСТЬ — TROST’, meaning the reed/rod, with the sponge at its top.

In and near the lower crossbar, we see the walls and roofs of Jerusalem, and the letters НИКА — NIKA — Greek for “He Conquers.”

At the base of the upright we see these letters:

М  Л
Р  Б

They abbreviate

МЕСТО ЛОБНОЕ
MESTO LOBNOE

РАЙ БЫСТЬ
RAI BUIST’

meaning,

[The] Place [of the] Skull Paradise Became

In normal English, “The Place of the Skull became Paradise.”  “Lobnoe” is often more loosely translated as “Execution” or Judgment,” but Mesto Lobnoe refers to the place commonly called Calvary in English, from the Latin Calvariæ Locus, “Skull Place.”

That leads us to the final two inscriptions.

At the sides of the base of the cross are the letters

Г  Г

They abbreviate

ГОРА ГОЛГОФА
GORA GOLGOFA
“Hill [of] Golgotha”

“Golgotha” ultimately derived from the Aramaic Gagultâ, meaning “skull.”
Remember that Church Slavic (like Russian) has no “th” sound, so it is replaced with the “f” sound.

Just below the base of the cross is an opening in which lies a skull.  This follows the tradition that the Crucifixion happened at the center of the earth, and that was supposedly where the biblical first man, Adam, was buried.  So the skull is that of Adam.  And at the sides of the skull are the letters

Г  А
abbreviating
ГОЛОВА АДАМА
GOLOVA ADAMA
[the] SKULL (literally “head”) [of] ADAM

Some crosses (like this one) have a little plant at the base, a sprout of new life.

Now let’s look at the reverse inscription, which is the one most commonly found on these Old Believer brass crosses:

(Courtesy of Nino Rilović)

Though it has some variations in spelling (these are common), it is the standard text of the Octoechos: Exapostilarion, Monday Matins, found also in the Prayer of the Praise of the Cross (Похвала кресту — Pokhvala krestu) — which is:

Крест хранитель всей вселенной;
Krest khranitel’ vsey vselennoy

Крест красота церковная;
Krest krasota tserkovnaya

Крест царем держава;
Krest tsarem derzhava

Крест верным утверждение;
Krest vernuim utverzhdenie

Крест ангелом слава;
Krest angelom slava

Крест бесом язва.
Krest besom yazva

“The Cross is the protector of the whole universe,
the Cross is the beauty of the Church,
the Cross is the might of kings,
the Cross is the confirmation of the faithful,
the Cross is the glory of angels and scourge of demons

(Octoechos: Exapostilarion, Monday Matins — Festal Matins for the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross.

At the base of the inscription we see another eight-pointed cross (the Old Believers would not accept the Latin cross).  Though again the spelling is off, it has the usual abbreviations:

Ц[А]РЬ СЛ[А]ВЫ
TSAR SLAVUI
“KING OF GLORY.”

And

СЫНЪ БОЖIЙ
SUIN” BOZHIY
“Son of God.”

Also:

IC XC
IСУСЪ ХРИСТОС
ISUS” KHRISTOS
“Jesus Christ”

We see the letters K and T for Kopie and Trost‘ (spear and reed/rod).

Note that they have reversed the positions of the letters in the М  Л / Р  Б abbreviation for Mesto Lobnoe Ray Buist, but the meaning is the same — “The Place of the Skull Became Paradise.”

Finally there are the letters Г Г for Gora Golgofa, “Hill of Golgotha.”

I mentioned earlier that the example discussed in this posting is an “altar cross.”  It is useful to know that cast metal Russian crosses are generally classified as follows:

1.  The altar cross (Напрестольный Крест — Naprestol’nuiy Krest):  it is placed on the altar beside the Gospel book.  These are the large crosses one often sees.

2. The pectoral cross (Нагрудный Крест — Nagrudnuiy Krest, or Наперсный Крест,  Napersnuiy Krest)These are the small to medium-sized crosses with a loop or hole at the top, so they may be worn on a cord or chain about the neck.  They are worn both by the clergy (priests, monks) and by certain pious people.

3.  The kiot or “arkcross ( Киотный КрестKiotnuiy Krest):  These are the crosses placed on the shelf in the “beautiful corner” of a room, along with the family icons.  They are of medium size, and have no hole or loop at the top.  They may also be taken on trips as a kind of temporary prayer focus.  They include those crosses one sees with side panels showing Martha and Mary (“Mother of God”) on the left of the Crucifixion and the Apostle John and Centurion Longinos (Login) at the right.  Kiot crosses are sometimes commonly known as “house crosses.”

4.  The body cross (Тельный крест — Telnuiy Krest):  These are the usually quite small crosses with a hole or loop at the top, worn around the neck on a cord or chain, and given to each person at baptism.  So any Russian Orthodox person wore a body cross.

GIOTTO AND THE DOUBLED JESUS

Every now and then, one reads something that is just too off the mark to overlook.

I happened to notice, today, an article talking about the Nativity painted by Giotto (c. 1266-1337):

It is a pleasant scene, typical of the early Italian mixture of old elements from the Greek tradition softened by the Italian sensibility.  It shows the familiar elements:  a star above, angels (one of whom announces the birth to the shepherds at right), the ox and ass, Mary and her child, old Joseph seated to one side, and the two serving women with the infant Jesus and the basin in which he is washed.

The article asked why Jesus is shown twice, as though it were some great mystery.  The explanation it gave was that the two representations symbolize his “divine” and “human” natures.

The correct explanation, of course, is that this double representation was simply the old way of showing two scenes from a narrative.  In one scene here, Mary is holding the infant Jesus.  The other scene is the washing of the infant Jesus by the two serving women.

If we look at a 10th century Byzantine ivory carving of the Nativity, we can see how these same elements were present:

(Walters Gallery)

(Walters Gallery)

Here, instead of Giotto’s warm depiction of Mary holding her child, we find the traditional, rather cold Eastern Orthodox image of Mary turned away from the child.  And then below, we see the child again, this time in the wash basin, being bathed by the two serving women.  At left sits Joseph, and at right is a shepherd.  Three angels are above, one of whom is obviously making his announcement to the shepherd, who is looking upward.

Now if you have been reading this site for some time, you will already know that showing a subject twice is simply the icon way of depicting ongoing action by showing two or more scenes or events from a narrative in the same painting.  There is no great mystery or symbolism to it.  As I mentioned in a previous posting, it is a kind of precursor to animation, and we might call it “static” animation, in that it indicates a change of focus from one event to another, but without actual movement of the image; it is the eye of the viewer that moves.  And of course early Italian art was strongly influenced by the Byzantine tradition.

People often give these things fanciful and imaginative interpretations, but they tend to overlook the art historical aspect — the development and changes in iconography over time.