Here is an icon pattern from the Russian Stroganov Podlinnik Today’s focus is on the fellow in the tree, shown in this example from the month of June:
The inscription above him — written in the handwriting style of the late 16th-early 17th century — reads:
ПР[Е]П[О]Д[O]БНАГО ОЦА НАШЕГО Д[А]В[И]ДА ИЖЕ В СЕЛУНИ СЕД РЯСА ВОХРА З БЕЛИЛОМ
PREPODOBNAGO OTSA NASHEGO DAVIDA IZHE V SELUNI
VENERABLE FATHER OUR DAVID who-is In THESSALONIKI
RYASA VOKHRA Z BELILOM
HABIT IN OCHRE WITH WHITE
ИЖЕ = IZHE is a Church Slavic word found often in the old painters’ manuals and in the calendar of saints. It means approximately “which/who is,” “the one which is” or “the one who is.” It often distinguishes saints by the place traditionally associated with them. When used of saints in this manner, it means loosely “the one in…” In today’s case, this David, to distinguish him from others, is “the one in Thessaloniki.”
So all together, it means:
Our Venerable Father David, the one in Thessaloniki;
Grey, habit in ochre with white.
The first part of the text identifies the saint: David of Thessaloniki. The second part tells how to paint him: Grey (hair and beard), and his monastic habit ochre with white.
Being of Thessaloniki, David is one of the many Greek saints celebrated in Russian Orthodoxy as well. Here is a Greek icon of him:
Being in red, the inscription above the saint is a bit difficult to make out, but it looks to be much the same as the usual inscription for him in Greek icons: O όσιος Δαβίδ ο εν Θεσσαλονίκη — in old pronunciation, Ho Hosios Dabid, ho en Thessaloniki, but in modern Greek, O Osios David o en Thessaloniki. You will recall that Hosios/Osios is the title used for a monastic male saint in Greek.
The icon shows David sitting in his almond tree residence, and a non-saint kneeling at right. We know he is not a saint because he has no halo.
At left is seated a crowned figure identified by another red inscription, partly abbreviated as:
Ο ΠΡΟΦ ΔΑΒΙΔ
Ο Προφήτης Δαβίδ
Ho Prophetes Dabid/O Prophetes David
THE PROPHET DAVID
In Eastern Orthodoxy, the King David of the Old Testament is commonly titled as “Prophet.” In this Greek icon, King David holds a scroll reading:
δικαιος ως φοινιξ ανθησει ωσει κεδρος
That is an excerpt from Psalm 92:12 (91:13 Septuagint):
δίκαιος ὡς φοῖνιξ ἀνθήσει, ὡσεὶ ἡ κέδρος ἡ ἐν τῷ Λιβάνῳ πληθυνθήσεται.
“The righteous shall flourish as a palm-tree: he shall be increased as the cedar in Lebanon.“
Remember that in icons, people speak through their scrolls, like in cartoon bubbles. So King David is saying that David of Thessaloniki is one of the righteous, and of course the mention of two kinds of trees relates to David of Thessaloniki living in a tree.
The figure shown in the clouds above is of course Jesus.
So much for the linguistic and symbolic aspect of these images. But just who was David of Thessaloniki, and why did he live in a tree?
Well, you know from earlier postings about the odd kind of saint called a “stylite,” one who lives on a pillar. The term for tree-dwelling saints is “dendrite.” So David of Thessaloniki is a dendrite.
To make a long story short, David is said to have been an ascetic monk living roughly between 450-550 c.e. He was thought to have come to Thessaloniki in Greece from Mesopotamia. He entered the monastery of Saints Theodore and Merkourios. While there, he somehow got it into his head that the thing to do was to make his dwelling up in the branches of the almond tree that grew beside the monastery church. He thought that if he did that, he would somehow learn God’s will for him. So he lived in the tree in the heat of summer and cold of winter for three years. After that time, an angel appeared to him, saying that God had heard his prayers, but that it was time for David to climb down and live in a monastic cell like other monks. Because of his eccentric asceticism, David gained a local reputation as a holy man and healer, and was visited by many people seeking his help.
For some reason, these stories tend to leave out details such as how the fellow living in the tree managed the sanitary necessities of being a human, but then such things are seldom mentioned in hagiography.
Greek icons of David of Thessaloniki often have him holding a scroll upon which is written:
Μοναχός εστιν αληθώς ο μηδέν έχων εν τω παρόντι βίω ει μη μόνον τον Χριστόν.
It means loosely:
“The true monk is one who in this life has nothing but Christ.”
Here is a 15th century Greek icon from the Vatopedi Monastery on Mt. Athos, with David of Thessaloniki in his tree at right and Simeon Stylites at left:
Here are the titles:
As you can see, their title inscriptions read Ὁ ἉΓΙΟC CΥΜΕΩΝ — HO HAGIOS SYMEON — “[the] HOLY SIMEON,” and Ὁ ἉΓΙΟC ΔΑΥΙΔ Ὁ ΕΝ ΘΕCCΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ — HO HAGIOS DAUID HO EN THESSALONIKE — “[the] HOLY DAVID the-one IN THESSALONIKI/THESSALONICA.”
Here is a closer look at David in his tree: