Here is today’s icon type:
As you can see, it is rather long — so we shall take it part by part:
The first word is ОБРАЗ, with the final З written lying just above the A. If you have been reading this site for some time (or you can go to the archives for older postings), you will recognize ОБРАЗ/Obraz as the word for “image.” The saints below are Vasiliy Velikiy (Basil the Great) and the Meter Theou (Mother of God);
The following words are: ПРОИСХОЖДЕНIЕ (ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ) — PROISKHOZDENIE;
ЧЕСТНАГО — CHESTNAGO (remember that the -ago suffix indicates an “of” form);
И ЖИВОТВОРЯЩАГО КРЕСТА –– I ZHIVOTVORYASHCHAGO KRESTA, with the IC XC abbreviation for Jesus just below);
ГОСПОДЬНЯ НА ИСТОЧНIКЬ (ИСТОЧНИКЬ ) — GOSPOD’NYA NA ISTOCHNIK’, with John the Forerunner and Grigoriy Bogoslov (Gregory the Theologian) just below;
Now if we put the whole inscription together, we get:
ОБРАЗ ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ ЧЕСТНАГО И ЖИВОТВОРЯЩАГО КРЕСТА ГОСПОДЬНЯ НА ИСТОЧНИКЬ
OBRAZ PROISKHOZHDENIE CHESTNAGO I ZHIVOTVORYASHCHAGO KRESTA GOSPOD’NYA NA ISTOCHNIK’
“[THE] IMAGE [of the] PROCESSION OF THE HONORABLE AND LIFE-CREATING CROSS [of the] Lord to the WELLSPRING.”
So this icon type is the “Image of the Procession of the Honorable and Life-creating (we can say “life-giving” in English) Cross of the Lord to the Wellspring” (or in English we can just say spring or fountain).
We can call it:
“The Image of the Procession of the Honorable and Life-giving Cross of the Lord to the Fountain.” It represents the origin of a minor church festival that takes place on August 1st (August 14th in the “new style” calendar).
The festival has a rather confused origin, being associated with four different events.
The first two were victories in battle:
1. The victory of the Russian forces of Great Prince Andrey Bogoliubskiy against the Bulgarians on August 1st, 1164; an icon of Mary and an image of the cross were used by the Russians in the Battle.
2. The victory of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel (1143-1180) over the Saracens — also on August 1, in which an icon of Mary and an image of the cross were also said to have been used.
3. The annual practice, in the city of Constantinople, of taking what was supposed to be the wood of the cross of Jesus from the Royal Treasury on July 31st, and carrying it through the streets to dispel disease, placing it on the altar of the Church of Holy Wisdom, then, on the following day, taking it to the Dormition Church, and letting it be venerated by the people. Then on August 14th it was taken back to the Imperial palace.
4. There was also a custom in Constantinople of consecrating the waters and the springs, generally on the 1st of each month, and with this the celebration of the supposed “true cross” was also associated.
In any case, what we see in the icon is the blessing of the waters in Constantinople with the cross, as depicted in this portion, with the Emperor and Empress and a crowd of people and clerics looking on as the cross is used to bless the waters in a stone wellspring from which a stream flows:
All kinds of people come to the sanctified water flowing from the wellspring, reminiscent of the crowds coming to the waters in the Живоносный источник/Zhivonosnuiy Istochnik/”Life-giving Fountain” type. Here we see one fellow dipping water from the stream, two others giving it to a prostrate ill woman, and a crippled man with pads on his legs and hands:
Here an ill girl, holding her cup, is brought to the stream in a wheelbarrow;
Below him are three cherubim, with their title in Slavic separated among the three halos, like this:
ХЕРУ ВИ МИ
Херувими/Kheruvimi — “Cherubim.”
Below those three is an angel identified only as a “Holy Angel of the Lord” (with “Holy” and “Lord” abbreviated).
There is some variation from example to example of this type, most notably in who dips the cross into the wellspring in the central scene. While in this example it is done by a поп/pop — a “priest,” as the Filimonov Podlinnik describes him, in others the cross is dipped by a standing “Angel of the Lord,”
in some by an “Angel of the Lord” flying down,
and in others by three “Angels of the Lord.”
The use of an angel is reminiscent of the story of the angel troubling the waters of the Pool of Bethesda in John 5, 1-5, and some icons of that type (the icon for the Sunday of the Paralytic) depict the angel. Also, some examples depict the wellspring as cross-shaped instead of square or rectangular, as found also in some icons of Jesus and the Samaritan Woman — the “Woman at the Well.”
In Russia, this festival became associated also with the “Baptism” — the conversion — of Russia (actually that of originally Kyivan Rus, not what we know today as Russia) to Orthodox Christianity in 988 c.e. On this day there is a lesser blessing of the waters in Russia. Also, on August 14th now, “Honey Savior” (Медовый Спас/Medovuiy Spas) is celebrated. It is a pre-Christian festival that was carried on into Christian times. “Honey Savior” is the first of three such ancient autumn festivals, the following two being “Apple Savior” on August 19th and “Nut Savior” on August 29th. On “Honey Savior,” people bring their honey from the hives to the church to be blessed, and believe it should not be eaten before that time. So August 1st is, in folk belief, the beginning of autumn.
Because of its association with the “Baptism of Russia,” August 1st was also Мокрый Спас/Mokruiy Spas — “Wet Savior” — the day on which the waters were blessed, and people took their horses and cattle to the rivers and streams to be bathed.